Vitamin D is more than just a “powerhouse hormone that helps build strong bones and teeth”. It is also a necessary nutrient that has been linked to numerous health benefits such as improved mood, weight management and reduced risk of certain cancers.
Vitamin D supplements may provide a modest health benefit for some people who don’t get enough by eating enough of the food sources that naturally produce it, such as fish and fatty fish, mushrooms, eggs, and milk and milk substitutes. But for others, the supplements can have more harmful effects than the benefits of the foods.
For our health, we all need adequate amounts of Vitamin D. It’s the best way to ensure our bodies are getting what they need to stay healthy. Recent studies have found that, while it’s true that Vitamin D supplements can be beneficial to our health, they may actually have negative effects for some people. In fact, it’s possible that high levels of Vitamin D could lead to many of the chronic diseases we see today.. Read more about how to take vitamin d correctly and let us know what you think.
Vitamin D and the Sun | Food Sources | Best Supplement | Deficiency | Nutrient Interactions | Immunity and Vitamin D
Vitamin D is beginning to seem almost too wonderful to be true.
Hundreds of studies have shown that vitamin D may assist with anything from osteoporosis to autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer prevention. 1
It is recommended by doctors. It’s being discussed on health podcasts. Your mother is even bugging you about it.
Do you want all of the important vitamin D information in one place that you can simply share?
Download our vitamin D “cheat sheet,” which contains the following information:
- A table that shows how much vitamin D you require based on your age and stage of life.
- A list of the greatest vitamin D-rich foods
- A test to see whether you’re at danger for vitamin D insufficiency.
Do you want it right now? Here’s where you can get a copy of the vitamin D guide in PDF format.
This is a fantastic handout or reference page for customers if you’re a coach. And if you’re interested about vitamin D, you’ll have all the information you need.
Many folks are wondering: What’s all the fuss about?
“Should I take vitamin D?” you may wonder.
We have the solutions to your questions.
We’ll teach you how to find out whether vitamin D supplementation is appropriate for you in this post.
You’ll discover why vitamin D is essential for your health, how much you need, and what you should know before taking a supplement.
(Check out our helpful vitamin D “cheat sheet” for coaches and practitioners.) You may use it as a personal reference or as a client handout.)
Oh, and you may email this article to Mom after you’ve finished reading it. (Will you please offer her our best?)
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What exactly is vitamin D?
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that humans get (primarily) through sunlight, but also from specific foods and, of course, supplementation.
In fact, “vitamin D” is a broad term that encompasses a variety of substances. The term “vitamin D” refers to a collection of substances.
Let’s get to know the family:
- Plants (such as mushrooms) and yeasts may produce vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
- Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is a fat-soluble vitamin found in animal products such as fish, egg yolks, and cheese. When we are exposed to sunshine, we also produce vitamin D3 on the surface of our skin.
- The type of vitamin D assessed in blood tests is calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D). It starts out as vitamin D3, but your liver changes it to calcifediol once it reaches your circulation.
- The most metabolically active form of vitamin D is calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D). Calcifediol is converted into it in your kidneys. Calcitriol, unlike its precursor vitamin D3, is now classified as a hormone rather than a vitamin.
Whoa. There’s a lot of shape-shifting going on. Sneaky.
What is the function of vitamin D?
According to new study, vitamin D receptors may be found in almost every cell in our bodies. It has a broad range of actions in the body, which is unsurprising.
Vitamin D aids in the maintenance of:
- mechanism of defense
- Role of the cell
- blood sugar control
- health of the bones
- absorption and circulation of calcium
- blood pressure that is within acceptable limits
(Did you know that the majority of vitamins and minerals offer a wide range of health benefits? Learn all there is to know about vitamins and minerals.)
How can I tell whether I need to supplement my diet?
Supplementing with vitamin D is a smart idea for many of us. Especially if we belong to one of the groups that are more susceptible to vitamin D insufficiency. (To see whether that’s you, take the quiz below.)
A blood test, on the other hand, is the only method to tell for sure whether we’re lacking.
To improve bone health and reduce the risk of illness, individuals should strive for a blood vitamin D level of at least 50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL). 2 (It’s possible that the “sweet spot” is closer to 75 nmol/L, or 30 ng/mL.)
Here are the recommended daily vitamin D intakes (from a combination of dietary and supplement sources) at various phases of life in order to achieve this goal:
Vitamin D consumption guidelines in general
|Age||Vitamin D consumption recommendations on a daily basis|
|From 0 to 12 months||400–1000 IU/d|
|1–18 years of age||600–1000 IU/d|
|18–70 years old||800–2000 IU/d|
|Pregnant / breastfeeding (>18 years)||800–2000 IU/d|
Most healthy people should be able to maintain an acceptable blood level of vitamin D (50–100 nmol/L or 20-40 ng/mL) by consuming 800-1000 IU of vitamin D per day through diet and supplements.
Some individuals may need to take more vitamin D than we’ve mentioned above if they have a more severe deficit. Work with your doctor to determine the appropriate dosage for you and how long you should take it.
What is the best way to obtain vitamin D?
The sun is the greatest vitamin D source ever.
Many individuals may get enough vitamin D just by being outside in the sun. And when it comes to “natural sources of vitamin D,” sunshine is a clear winner.
A good general rule is to get 10-20 minutes of noon sun each day, with your face, arms, hands, and legs exposed (and no sunscreen).
Geographic location, skin tone, clothing type, sunscreen usage, age, and general health all influence how much vitamin D you receive (and absorb) from the sun.
As a result, depending on who you are and where you live, you may need more sun than the guideline above.
The greatest vitamin D-rich foods
By emphasizing specific items in your diet, you may substantially increase your vitamin D consumption.
Here are a few of the most useful resources3:
The most effective vitamin D supplement
Vitamin D supplements are available in the form of pills, liquids, sublingual sprays, and (yep) chewable gummy worms.
While the supplement’s administration mechanism isn’t crucial4, the type of vitamin D in it is.
In pharmacies and health food shops, you’ll usually find two types of vitamin D:
- Vitamin D2 is a fat-soluble vitamin produced from yeast or mushrooms (and vegan-friendly)
- Vitamin D3 is usually obtained from lanolin (sheep’s wool).
While both forms may increase vitamin D levels in the blood, vitamin D3 seems to perform a better job of optimizing and maintaining vitamin D levels over time. 5,6,7
So, unless you’re avoiding animal products, search for a vitamin D3 supplement (cholecalciferol).
Taking vitamin D when you aren’t deficient, on the other hand, has little to no effect and may even be harmful. 8
(See below for further information on how to evaluate your risk of insufficiency.)
Vitamin D, calcium, and other nutrients interact with each other.
Get to know vitamin D’s “colleagues.”
The nutrients listed below both assist vitamin D’s function in the body and benefit from its presence.
- Calcium is better absorbed when vitamin D is present. One of the reasons vitamin D is essential for bone health is because of this. Too much of either, on the other hand, may cause calcium to build up in places it shouldn’t be: soft tissues like the kidneys and arteries. 9
- Vitamin K aids in the transport of calcium to its proper location (mostly, the bones). 10 Calcium deposits in the soft tissues may be prevented by combining vitamin K with vitamin D. 11,12,13
- Magnesium may aid in the conversion of vitamin D into more metabolically active molecules. According to research, combining magnesium alongside vitamin D is more efficient than taking vitamin D alone in treating vitamin D insufficiency. 14,15
- Vitamin A can help to avoid vitamin D toxicity, while vitamin D can help to prevent vitamin A toxicity. 3 In addition, some research suggests that boosting vitamin A may help prevent calcium accumulation, which can occur when vitamin D levels are too high. 16
There is one caveat: combining high amounts of vitamin D with high dosages of any of these vitamins and minerals may sometimes backfire and cause health issues. (Especially if you’re deficient in other nutrients.)
While it’s rare to “overdose” on nutrients from food, supplements may enable you to “mega-dose,” which can lead to problems.
Consult your physician if you’re uncertain how to balance your vitamins.
Deficiency in vitamin D
The majority of specialists believe that a blood level of:
- 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, or 25(OH)D, at 30-50 nmol/L (12-20 ng/mL) is inadequate for optimum health.
- <30 nmol/L (12 ng/mL) of 25(OH)D is considered a severe deficiency
Supplementation is expected to improve levels in each of these categories. 17,18,19
What is the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency?
According to statistics, between 20 and 40% of people and children across the globe have inadequate vitamin D levels. 19,20,21
Here’s a fun (well, fun for health geeks like us) quiz:
If you answered “yes” to any of the following questions, you may be at risk for vitamin deficiency.
- Do you live far from the equator and/or have to deal with winter? Even if you spend a lot of time outdoors during certain seasons—usually the winter months—getting adequate vitamin D from sunshine is virtually difficult. 22
- Do you have a darker complexion? When skin is exposed to sunlight, melanin—the pigment that gives skin its dark color—reduces the skin’s capacity to generate vitamin D. 17 Vitamin D deficiency affects 89 percent of Blacks and 69 percent of Hispanics in the United States. 23
- Do you belong to the “50+” age group? The body’s capacity to produce vitamin D on the skin declines with age. 24
- Have a chronic disease, malabsorption problems, or a BMI that puts you in the “obese” category? People with particular diseases, malabsorption, or obesity are more prone to have problems absorbing and metabolizing vitamin D. 25,26
- When you go outdoors, do you like to cover up (either with clothes or with sunscreen)? Applying clothes that covers the majority of your body, or wearing sunscreen, shields your skin from UVB and UVA radiation, which prevents vitamin D production. Survivors with burns or skin cancer may be more prone to slathering on the sunscreen.
- Just avoid going outdoors throughout the day? If you are unable to walk outdoors when the sun is at its maximum, whether due to sickness or shift work, you will miss the window for optimum vitamin D production.
Vitamin D insufficiency is linked to a variety of diseases.
As you would expect, the more severe a deficit is, the more probable it is that unfavorable health consequences will manifest.
Vitamin D deficiency is linked to an increased risk of early mortality, infections, and a variety of other illnesses. 27
Vitamin D insufficiency is linked to the following diseases:
- Osteoporosis and overall bone weakness or softening26
- Immune dysfunction, such as autoimmune diseases and increased infection susceptibility28
- Diabetes type 229,30
- Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a condition that affect 31,32
- Cancer, particularly cancer mortality33,34,35, is a serious disease.
The problem is that we don’t have conclusive proof that just increasing vitamin D levels helps or reverses these diseases. We also don’t know for sure if vitamin D shortage or insufficiency is the root of the problem.
Although vitamin D insufficiency is linked to many diseases, the exact mechanism is unknown.
Vitamin D and Immunity
Vitamin D has long been promoted as an immunological enhancer.
As a consequence, throughout flu seasons, and especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, it’s become a popular “just in case” supplement.
But remember how we mentioned that taking vitamin D supplements won’t help you unless you’re deficient?
This is also true of immunological function.
When your vitamin D levels are normal, taking additional vitamin D won’t offer you “super immunity.”
True, vitamin D deficiency has been related to more frequent and severe infections, such as upper respiratory tract infections38 and COVID-19.39,40
So, if you’re concerned about your immune system and think you may be deficient in vitamin D, get tested.
Get your D levels into a normal range if you have a proven deficiency: 25(OH)D concentrations of 50-100 nmol/L (20-40 ng/mL).
(Your doctor can help you decide out how much vitamin D to take and for how long.)
If your vitamin D levels are normal, though, there’s no need to supplement.
Learn more here: 8 strategies to boost your immunity and safeguard your health.
Your next steps with vitamin D
1. Get some (safe) sun exposure and consume vitamin D-rich foods if at all feasible.
Many people’s vitamin D needs may and should be fulfilled solely via sunlight and food.
Consume vitamin D-rich meals as well as a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables high in vitamins and minerals that promote vitamin D’s function in the body, such as calcium, magnesium, vitamin K, and vitamin A.
Unless you have additional certification that allows you to perform Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT), it’s better for you to stick to food and lifestyle practices to assist your clients achieve their vitamin D needs as a coach.
Coaches may educate clients about their risk factors and give basic vitamin D consumption recommendations, but only trained MNT practitioners can diagnose and treat vitamin D deficiency.
2. Get a blood test if you suspect a deficiency.
Get a blood test if feasible to confirm any suspected deficits. (This is true of other minerals as well, such as iron or vitamin B12, not only vitamin D.)
Also, keep in mind that supplementing with large levels of vitamin D should be avoided if there are other deficiencies present.
Consult a doctor to establish whether you have a deficit and, if so, what dosage you should take to correct it.
3. Pay special attention to individuals who are more susceptible to deficiency.
If you’re working with a customer who:
- has problems with malabsorption
- has a darker complexion
- lives on the other side of the equator
- conceals (either with clothes or sunscreen)
…understand that vitamin D insufficiency is quite prevalent. 20
Most individuals who are deficient in vitamin D will not notice.
While some individuals are more susceptible to colds and flus,41 many others experience no symptoms at all.
It’s not a terrible idea to recommend that a client work with a doctor and be tested if they fall into one or more of the “at risk” categories (particularly if their diet is also poor in vitamin D dietary sources).
The basic conclusion is that although vitamins, minerals, water, and, say, a sufficient supply of toilet paper are all important to our health, more isn’t necessarily better.
To see the information sources mentioned in this article, go here.
Strong correlations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality in a large cohort research, Schottker B, Haug U, Schomburg L, et al. 2013 Apr;97(4):782-93 in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
2. Samantha M. Kimball and Michael F. Holick. “Official Recommendations for Vitamin D Across Life Stages in Developed Countries,” published in 2020. 74 (11): 1514–18 in European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
3. n.d., “Vitamin D.” On March 29, 2021, I was able to get a hold of some information. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/.
Maria G. Grammatikopoulou, Konstantinos Gkiouras, Meletios P. Nigdelis, Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, and Dimitrios G. Goulis. 4. Grammatikopoulou, Maria G., Konstantinos Gkiouras, Meletios P. Nigdelis, Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, and Dimitrios G. Goulis. “Efficacy of Vitamin D3 Buccal Spray Supplementation Compared to Other Delivery Methods: A Systematic Review of Superiority Randomized Controlled Trials,” according to a study published in 2020. 12 nutrients (3). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030691.
Laura Tripkovic, Helen Lambert, Kathryn Hart, Colin P. Smith, Giselda Bucca, Simon Penson, Gemma Chope, and others. 2012. Tripkovic, Laura, Helen Lambert, Kathryn Hart, Colin P. Smith, Giselda Bucca, Simon Penson, Gemma Chope, and others. “A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Raising Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 1357–64, is a peer-reviewed journal.
Victoria F. Logan, Andrew R. Gray, Meredith C. Peddie, Michelle J. Harper, and Lisa A. Houghton. 6. Logan, Victoria F., Andrew R. Gray, Meredith C. Peddie, Michelle J. Harper, and Lisa A. Houghton. 2013. “Over the Winter Months, Long-Term Vitamin D3 Supplementation Is More Effective Than Vitamin D2 in Maintaining Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status.” 109 (6): 1082–88 in the British Journal of Nutrition.
7. Reinhold Vieth, “Vitamin D Supplementation: Cholecalciferol, Calcifediol, and Calcitriol,” in Vieth, Reinhold, “Vitamin D Supplementation: Cholecalciferol, Calcifediol, and Calcitriol,” in Vieth, Reinhold, “Vita 74 (11): 1493–97.6 European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Safi U. Khan, Muhammad U. Khan, Haris Riaz, Shahul Valavoor, Di Zhao, Lauren Vaughan, Victor Okunrintemi, et al. 2019. “Effects of Nutritional Supplements and Dietary Interventions on Cardiovascular Outcomes: An Umbrella Review and Evidence Map.” Annals of Internal Medicine 171 (3): 190–98.
“Vitamin D, Calcium Supplements, and Implications for Cardiovascular Health: JACC Focus Seminar,” Erin D. Michos, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Amir S. Heravi, and Lawrence J. Appel, 2021. 77 (4): 437–49 in Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
“Effect of Continuous Combined Therapy with Vitamin K(2) and Vitamin D(3) on Bone Mineral Density and Coagulofibrinolysis Function in Postmenopausal Women,” by Takahisa Ushiroyama, Atushi Ikeda, and Minoru Ueki, published in 2002. 211–21 in Maturitas 41 (3).
“Vitamin K Status and Vascular Calcification: Evidence from Observational and Clinical Studies,” by M. Kyla Shea and Rachel M. Holden, was published in 2012. Advances in Nutrition, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 158–65.
M. Kyla Shea, Christopher J. O’Donnell, Udo Hoffmann, Gerard E. Dallal, Bess Dawson-Hughes, José M. Ordovas, Paul A. Price, Matthew K. Williamson, and Sarah L. Booth are among the 12. “Vitamin K Supplementation with Coronary Artery Calcium Progression in Older Men and Women.” 1799–1807 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 6.
Christopher Masterjohn, number thirteen. Vitamin D Toxicity Redefined: Vitamin K and the Molecular Mechanism,” published in 2007. Medical Hypotheses, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 1026–34.
Xinqing Deng, Yiqing Song, Joann E. Manson, Lisa B. Signorello, Shumin M. Zhang, Martha J. Shrubsole, Reid M. Ness, Douglas L. Seidner, and Qi Dai. 14. Deng, Xinqing, Yiqing Song, Joann E. Manson, Lisa B. Signorello, Shumin M. Zhang, Martha J. Shrubsole, Reid M. Ness, Douglas L. “Magnesium, Vitamin D Status, and Mortality: Results from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2006 and NHANES III,” according to a study published in 2013. BMC Medicine 11: 187 (August).
15. Anne Marie Uwitonze and Mohammed S. Razzaque, “Role of Magnesium in Vitamin D Activation and Function,” in “Role of Magnesium in Vitamin D Activation and Function,” in “Role of Magnesium in Vitamin D Activation and Function,” in “Role of Magne 118 (3): 181–89 in Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
S. Johansson and H. Melhus, S. Johansson and H. Melhus, S. Johansson and H. Melhus, S. Johans “Vitamin A Blocks Vitamin D’s Calcium Response in Man.” The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 16 (10): 1899–1905.
17. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Vitamin D and Calcium Dietary Reference Intakes. 2011. Calcium and Vitamin D Dietary Reference Intakes A. Catharine Ross, Christine L. Taylor, Ann L. Yaktine, and Heather B. Del Valle edited the collection. National Academies Press, Washington, DC (US).
Michael F. Holick, Neil C. Binkley, Heike A. Bischoff-Ferrari, Catherine M. Gordon, David A. Hanley, Robert P. Heaney, M. Hassan Murad, Connie M. Weaver, and the Endocrine Society. 18. Holick, Michael F., Neil C. Binkley, Heike A. Bischoff-Ferrari, Catherine M. Gordon, David A. Hanley, Robert P. Heaney “Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline,” published by the Endocrine Society in 2011. 96 (7): 1911–30 in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.
Karin Amrein, Mario Scherkl, Magdalena Hoffmann, Stefan Neuwersch-Sommeregger, Markus Köstenberger, Adelina Tmava Berisha, Gennaro Martucci, Stefan Pilz, and Oliver Malle are among the 19. Amrein, Karin, Mario Scherkl, Magdalena Hoffmann, Stefan Neuwersch-Sommeregger, Markus Köstenberger, Adelina Tmava Berisha, Gennaro “Vitamin D Deficiency 2.0: An Update on the Current Status Around the World,” published in 2020. 74 (11): 1498–1513 in European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Naveen R. Parva, Satish Tadepalli, Pratiksha Singh, Andrew Qian, Rajat Joshi, Hyndavi Kandala, Vinod K. Nookala, and Pramil Cheriyath are among the 20. Parva, Satish Tadepalli, Pratiksha Singh, Andrew Qian, Rajat Joshi, Hyndavi Kandala, Vinod K. Nookala, and Pramil Cheriya “Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Associated Risk Factors in the US Population (2011-2012),” according to a study published in 2018. Cureus, vol. 10, no. 6, p. e2741.
Kevin D. Cashman, Tony Sheehy, and Colette M. O’Neill. Cashman, Kevin D., Tony Sheehy, and Colette M. O’Neill. Cashman, Kevin D., Tony Sheehy, and “Is Vitamin D Deficiency a Public Health Issue in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?” A Systematic Review of the Literature.” 433–53 in European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 1.
“Sunlight and Vitamin D: A Global Perspective for Health,” by Matthias Wacker and Michael F. Holick, published in 2013. Dermato-Endocrinology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 51–108.
Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D insufficiency in US adults, 23. Forrest, KY, Stuhldreher, WL. 2011 Jan;31(1):48-54 in Nutr Res.
Jenna R. Chalcraft, Linda M. Cardinal, Perry J. Wechsler, Bruce W. Hollis, Kenneth G. Gerow, Brenda M. Alexander, Jill F. Keith, and D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Jenna R. Chalcraft, Linda M. Cardinal, Perry J. Wechsler, Bruce W. Hollis, Kenneth G. Gerow, Brenda M. Alexander, Jill F. Keith, and D. Enette Larson-M “Vitamin D Synthesis in Older and Younger Men and Women Following a Single Bout of Sun Exposure.” 12 nutrients (8). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082237.
25. Silva, Mariana Costa, and Tania Weber Furlanetto, “Intestinal Absorption of Vitamin D: A Systematic Review.” Silva, Mariana Costa, and Tania Weber Furlanetto, “Intestinal Absorption of Vitamin D: A Systematic Review.” Silva, Mariana Costa, and Tania Weber 60–76 in Nutrition Reviews, vol. 76, no. 1.
26. Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board, as well as the Committee to Review Vitamin D and Calcium Dietary Reference Intakes. 2011. Calcium and Vitamin D Dietary Reference Intakes The National Academies Press is a publishing house based in Washington, DC.
Song Guo Zheng, Hanmin Wang, Weiwen Chen, Dongqing Li, Xiaoe Yin, Xiaode Zhang, Nancy Olsen, and Song Guo Zheng. 27. Wang, Hanmin, Weiwen Chen, Dongqing Li, Xiaoe Yin, Xiaode Zhang, Nancy Olsen, and Song Guo Zheng. Vitamin D and Chronic Diseases, 2017. 346–53 in Aging and Disease.
Cynthia Aranow, 28. Vitamin D and the Immune System, 2011. The official publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research, Journal of Investigative Medicine, 59 (6): 881–86.
Xinyi Li, Yan Liu, Yingdong Zheng, Peiyu Wang, and Yumei Zhang. 2018. Li, Xinyi, Yan Liu, Yingdong Zheng, Peiyu Wang, and Yumei Zhang. “A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.” 10 nutrients (3). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030375.
Anastassios G. Pittas, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Patricia Sheehan, James H. Ware, William C. Knowler, Vanita R. Aroda, Irwin Brodsky, and others. 2019. “Vitamin D Supplementation with Type 2 Diabetes Prevention.” 381 (6): 520–30 in The New England Journal of Medicine.
Eva Kassi, Christos Adamopoulos, Efthimia K. Basdra, and Athanasios G. Papavassiliou. 31. Kassi, Eva, Christos Adamopoulos, Efthimia K. Basdra, and Athanasios G. Papavassiliou. “The Role of Vitamin D in Atherosclerosis,” published in 2013. 2517–31 in Circulation 128 (23):
“Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease: Controversy Unresolved,” by Ibhar Al Mheid and Arshed A. Quyyumi, published in 2017. 89–100 in Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 70, no. 1.
Lu Yin, José M. Ordóez-Mena, Tianhui Chen, Ben Schöttker, Volker Arndt, and Hermann Brenner. 33. Yin, Lu, José M. Ordóez-Mena, Tianhui Chen, Ben Schöttker, Volker Arndt, and Hermann Brenner. “A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Serum Concentration and Total Cancer Incidence and Mortality.” 753–64 in Preventive Medicine, vol. 57, no. 6.
Jianmin Han, Xiaofei Guo, Xiao Yu, Shuang Liu, Xinyue Cui, Bo Zhang, and Hui Liang. 34. Han, Jianmin, Xiaofei Guo, Xiao Yu, Shuang Liu, Xinyue Cui, Bo Zhang, and Hui Liang. 2019. “A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies on 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Total Cancer Incidence and Mortality.” 11 Nutrients (10). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102295.
“Vitamin D Supplements with Cancer Incidence and Mortality: A Meta-Analysis,” by N. Keum and E. Giovannucci, was published in 2014. 111 (5): 976–80 in the British Journal of Cancer.
C. P. Earthman, L. M. Beckman, K. Masodkar, and S. D. Sibley. 36. Earthman, C. P., L. M. Beckman, K. Masodkar, and S. D. Sibley. “Considerations and Implications of the Link Between Obesity and Low Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations.” 387–96 in the International Journal of Obesity.
Rebecca E. S. Anglin, Zainab Samaan, Stephen D. Walter, and Sarah D. McDonald. 37. Anglin, Rebecca E. S., Zainab Samaan, Stephen D. Walter, and Sarah D. McDonald. Vitamin D Deficiency with Depression in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” was published in 2013. The Journal of Mental Science 202 (February): 100–107. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science 202 (February): 100–107.
“Vitamin D and Respiratory Health,” by D. A. Hughes and R. Norton, published in 2009. 20–25 in Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 158, no. 1.
Vadir Baktash, Tom Hosack, Nishil Patel, Shital Shah, Pirabakaran Kandiah, Koenraad Van den Abbeele, Amit K. J. Mandal, and Constantinos G. Missouris. 39. Baktash, Vadir, Tom Hosack, Nishil Patel, Shital Shah, Pirabakaran Kandiah, Koenraad Van den Abbeele, Amit K. J. Mandal “Vitamin D Status and Outcomes for Hospitalized Older Patients with COVID-19” will be published in 2020. August issue of the Postgraduate Medical Journal. https://doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138712.
G. E. Carpagnano, V. Di Lecce, V. N. Quaranta, A. Zito, E. Buonamico, E. Capozza, A. Palumbo, G. Di Gioia, V. N. Valerio, and O. Resta. 40. Carpagnano, G. E., V. Di Lecce, V. N. Quaranta, A. Zito, E. Buonamico, E “Vitamin D Deficiency as a Predictor of Poor Prognosis in Patients with COVID-19-Induced Acute Respiratory Failure.” 2021. 765–71 in Journal of Endocrinological Investigation.
41. Schwalfenberg, Gerry K. 2011. “A Review of the Critical Role of Vitamin D in the Functioning of the Immune System and the Clinical Implications of Vitamin D Deficiency.” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 55 (1): 96–108.
If you’re a coach or wish to be one…
It’s both an art and a science to guide clients, patients, friends, or family members through healthy food and lifestyle adjustments in a manner that’s tailored to their individual body, tastes, and circumstances.
Consider the Level 1 Certification if you want to learn more about both.
I have been thinking a lot about the role that Vitamin D supplements can play in health and disease prevention recently, and it seems that most of the evidence on the topic is either ambiguous (i.e., positive or negative) or entirely uninformative. This paper, which is based on a systematic review of the literature, is an attempt to provide an answer to this question.. Read more about vitamin d foods and let us know what you think.
Frequently Asked Questions
Do vitamin D supplements actually help?
Vitamin D supplements are not proven to help.
Can vitamin D pills hurt you?
Vitamin D pills are not harmful to your health.
Is taking vitamin D supplements bad?
Vitamin D is a nutrient that your body needs to function properly. Its not bad, but it does have some side effects such as nausea and diarrhea.
This article broadly covered the following related topics:
- vitamin d benefits skin
- too much vitamin d
- vitamin d supplement
- vitamin d foods
- vitamin d toxicity